A Complete Guide to Understanding The Roman Pantheon Architecture

RomeRome Pantheon Architecture

Standing majestically in the heart of the Eternal City, Rome Pantheon is a true testament to the ingenuity and engineering prowess of the Roman civilization. With its iconic dome and timeless design, this architectural wonder has stood the test of time, captivating visitors from around the globe for centuries.

Roman Pantheon Architecture & Design

Rome Pantheon Architecture

During the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire, the Romans adopted and adapted various aspects of Greek architecture, incorporating them into their own building projects. The Pantheon's design reflects this synthesis of Roman engineering prowess with Greek architectural ideals.

  • Greek Influence: The grand portico of the Pantheon, supported by a row of Corinthian columns, showcases the clear influence of Greek classicism. The use of columns with intricate fluted shafts and acanthus leaf capitals was a typical feature of Greek temples.
  • Hellenistic Influence:The Pantheon's rebuilding during the reign of Emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century AD coincided with the Hellenistic period, characterized by an eclectic mix of Greek, Egyptian, and Near Eastern influences.
  • Roman Engineering Innovation: The most distinctive aspect of the Pantheon's architectural design is the massive hemispherical dome, which exemplifies Roman engineering innovation. Unlike the Greeks, who primarily used post-and-lintel construction, the Romans perfected the use of arches, vaults, and concrete.

Who Built the Pantheon in Rome?

Marcus Agrippa - Rome Pantheon

Marcus Agrippa

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a Roman statesman, general, and close friend of the first Roman Emperor Augustus. Agrippa's association with the Pantheon stems from the original construction of the temple. In 27-25 BC, during the reign of Augustus, Agrippa commissioned the first Pantheon as a temple dedicated to all the gods of ancient Rome. This original structure was built in the Campus Martius area of Rome. The original Pantheon designed by Agrippa was smaller in scale and different in appearance compared to the current Pantheon we know today.

Emperor Hadrian

Emperor Hadrian

After the original structure was destroyed by fire in 80 AD, Hadrian redesigned Rome Pantheon as we see it today. Hadrian's design for the Pantheon was groundbreaking for its time and remains an architectural marvel even by today's standards. He employed the expertise of skilled architects and engineers to bring his vision to life. The new Pantheon was completed around 126 AD, just a few years before his death, and stands as a testament to the architectural prowess and grandeur of the Roman Empire.

Structure Of The Rome Pantheon

Rome Pantheon Architecture

Stages of Construction of The Rome Pantheon

Agrippa's Pantheon (27 BC - 80 AD)

The first Pantheon was commissioned by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a Roman general, and statesman, during the reign of Emperor Augustus. This original structure was completed around 27 BC and was dedicated to the gods of ancient Rome. However, this early version of the Pantheon was destroyed by fire in 80 AD.

Hadrian's Rebuilding (118 AD - 125 AD)

After the fire that destroyed Agrippa's Pantheon, the Roman Emperor Hadrian decided to rebuild the structure. He took on the project to honor his predecessors and to create a grand monument that showcased the power and grandeur of the Roman Empire. The rebuilding process started around 118 AD and was completed in 125 AD.

Modifications and Additions (126 AD - Present)

During the reign of succeeding emperors and throughout the following centuries, the Pantheon underwent several modifications, repairs, and additions. These changes included repairs to the dome, restoration work on the interior, and the addition of decorative elements. Many of the original statues and adornments were lost over time, but some have been restored or replaced in modern times.

Exterior Highlights of the Roman Pantheon Architecture

Rome Pantheon - Grand Portico

The Grand Portico

The grand portico of the Pantheon is a testament to the architectural prowess and grandeur of ancient Rome. It features a row of massive Corinthian columns, standing tall and proud, supporting an impressive triangular pediment.

Rome Pantheon - Door

Doors Of Pantheon

The doors of the Pantheon are a testament to the skill and artistry of ancient Roman metalworkers. Crafted from bronze, these imposing structures have weathered the test of time, preserving their splendor and beauty for centuries.

Rome Pantheon - Dome

The Dome

The Dome of the Pantheon is a remarkable feat of construction, considered one of the largest unreinforced concrete domes in the world. The dome spans an impressive diameter of approximately 43 meters (142 feet), creating a vast and awe-inspiring space within.

Interior of the Pantheon Rome - Highlights


The Rotunda

The Rome Pantheon's rotunda stands as a remarkable testament to the architectural genius of the ancient Romans. This circular chamber, with its harmonious proportions and awe-inspiring design, creates a captivating atmosphere for visitors.

Marble Floors

Marble Floors

Intricate geometric shapes, mesmerizing mosaics, and exquisite inlays of the marble floor come together to create a visually captivating tapestry underfoot. These patterns serve as a testament to the skill and artistry of ancient Roman craftsmen, who painstakingly arranged the marble pieces to achieve a harmonious composition.

Rome Pantheon-Statues


The statues within the Rome Pantheon represent a diverse range of subjects, from mythological deities to historical figures and revered individuals. Each statue tells its own story, embodying the beliefs, values, and legends of ancient Roman society.

Rome Pantheon-Carvings


The carvings within the Rome Pantheon are a testament to the rich cultural and artistic traditions of the time. Skilled artisans meticulously chiseled and sculpted the stone, breathing life into mythological figures, symbolic representations, and ornate patterns.

Rome Pantheon | Ancient Genius of Architecture & Engineering

The Pantheon, a Roman temple turned church, boasts an awe-inspiring coffered dome with a sunlight-drenched oculus. This iconic monument, renowned for its engineering excellence, has earned global recognition for its architectural brilliance. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, it beckons visitors to witness its enduring grandeur and experience the intersection of history and artistry.

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Frequently Asked Questions About Roman Pantheon Architecture

What is the Pantheon Rome architectural style?

The Rome Pantheon follows the distinguished Roman architectural style, influenced by Greek classicism.

Who designed the Rome Pantheon?

The original Pantheon was designed by Marcus Agrippa, and the reconstruction was overseen by Apollodorus of Damascus.

What makes the Roman Pantheon architecture so special?

The Pantheon's iconic dome, grand portico, and harmonious design make its architecture world-renowned.

What was the Roman Pantheon Architecture inspired by?

The Rome Pantheon drew inspiration from both Roman and Greek architectural traditions.

When was the Rome Pantheon built?

The original construction of the Pantheon took place in 27-25 BC, while the reconstruction was completed around 126 AD.

What is inside the Rome Pantheon?

The interior of the Pantheon features a vast rotunda, circular wall niches, marble floors, and captivating sculptures.

What can be seen on the exterior of the Rome Pantheon?

The exterior highlights of the Pantheon include the grand portico, massive bronze doors, and the iconic dome.

How big is the Rome Pantheon?

The Rome Pantheon covers an area of approximately 8,000 square meters.

What is the Rome Pantheon made out of?

The Pantheon's construction materials include concrete, brick, marble, and lightweight volcanic stone.