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Everything You Need to Know About Rome Pantheon : The Iconic Ancient Roman Temple


What Is Rome Pantheon?

The Rome Pantheon is a well-preserved ancient Roman temple located in Rome, Italy. It was originally built in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus and was rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian around 120 AD after the original structure was destroyed by fire. The Pantheon is a circular building with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns supporting a pediment. It has been used as a church since the 7th century, and it is one of the best-preserved ancient Roman buildings in existence.

Rome Pantheon | Quick Facts

Rome Pantheon
  • Type of attraction: Ancient Roman temple and church
  • Location: Rome, Italy
  • Founded: Originally built in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa, rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian around 120 AD
  • Architectural Style: Greek
  • Materials: Concrete, brick, and marble.
  • Interior: Features a circular rotunda with niches for statues and a coffered ceiling.
  • Cultural Impact: Inspired later architectural designs and showcased Roman innovation.
  • Continued Use: Known as the Basilica of Santa Maria ad Martyrs, it's still in use as a church.
  • Number of visitors per year: 2 million, approximately

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What To See At Rome Pantheon?

Tomb of Raphael, Rome Pantheon

Tombs and Memorials

The Pantheon holds tombs of notable figures like artist Raphael and Italian kings Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I. Each tomb is an artistic work, allowing visitors to pay respects and appreciate the intricate details.

Rome Pantheon Chapel of the Crucifixion


Inside the expansive Pantheon interior, diverse chapels honor saints and religious figures. Adorning rotunda walls, these alcoves showcase sculptures, paintings, and artifacts, enhancing the site's spiritual atmosphere.

Rotunda Rome Pantheon


Central to the Pantheon's interior is its breathtaking rotunda, crowned by a sloping, coffered concrete dome. Enhanced by Corinthian granite columns and ornate marble flooring, the symmetrical design exudes architectural splendor.

Rome Pantheon Dome
Marble Flooring Rome Pantheon

Marble Flooring

The interior of the Pantheon boasts intricate marble flooring with a beautiful design that complements the grandeur of the structure. Additionally, the decorative details on the columns, walls, and arches demonstrate the high level of craftsmanship and artistic skill prevalent during ancient Roman times.

Portico Rome Pantheon

Exterior Facade

While exploring the Pantheon, don't forget to admire its impressive exterior facade. The portico with its massive granite Corinthian columns is a sight to behold and represents another remarkable example of Roman architecture.

Brief History Of Rome Pantheon

  • 27 BC: The original Pantheon is commissioned by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa during the reign of Emperor Augustus. It is dedicated to the gods of ancient Rome.
  • 80 AD: The first Pantheon is destroyed by fire.
  • 118 AD - 125 AD: Emperor Hadrian decides to rebuild the Pantheon to honor his predecessors and showcase the power of the Roman Empire. The reconstruction takes place, and the new Pantheon is completed under Hadrian's supervision.
  • 2nd and 3rd Centuries: The Pantheon undergoes various modifications and repairs, including restoration work on the dome and interior, as well as the addition of decorative elements.
  • 609 AD: The Pantheon is consecrated as a Christian church, known as "Santa Maria ad Martyres" (St. Mary and the Martyrs). This conversion helps to preserve the building during the tumultuous times of the Roman Empire's decline.
  • 17th Century: The Pantheon attracts significant interest from Renaissance artists and architects who are inspired by its classical design and incorporate similar features into their works.
  • 1747: The artist Giovanni Paolo Panini creates a famous painting titled "Interior of the Pantheon, Rome," capturing the grandeur of the structure during this period.
  • 19th Century: The Pantheon becomes a symbol of Italy's national identity during the Italian unification process, leading to further restorations and preservation efforts.

Who Built The Rome Pantheon?

The original Rome Pantheon was built by the Roman statesman and general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa in 27 BC. However, the current structure that stands today was rebuilt by the Roman Emperor Hadrian around 120 AD. Hadrian was an accomplished builder and architect, and he oversaw many important building projects during his reign, including the construction of the Hadrian's Wall in Britain and the Temple of Venus and Roma in Rome. 

Architecture Of Rome Pantheon

Rome Pantheon

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Frequently Asked Questions About Rome Pantheon

What is the Rome Pantheon?

The Rome Pantheon is an ancient Roman building that was originally constructed in 27 BC as a temple dedicated to all the gods of ancient Rome. The current building was rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in 120 AD and is now a church dedicated to St. Mary and the Martyrs.

What is the architecture of the Rome Pantheon like?

The Rome Pantheon is known for its impressive dome, which is made of concrete and has a diameter of 43.3 meters (142 feet). The dome is one of the largest unsupported domes in the world and is supported by a series of arches and columns. The interior of the building is decorated with marble and intricate carvings.

Why was Rome Patheon built?

The Pantheon in Rome was built as a temple to honor and worship the ancient Roman gods.In the 7th century AD, the Pantheon was converted into a Christian church, known as the Basilica of Santa Maria ad Martyres. This transformation helped protect the building from destruction during the early Christian era.

What is the history of the Rome Pantheon?

The first Pantheon was constructed by Agrippa in 27 BC, but it was destroyed in a fire in 80 AD. The current building was rebuilt by Hadrian in 120 AD and converted into a Christian church in the 7th century AD. It has undergone numerous restorations over the years and has been used as a burial site for notable figures throughout history.

Can you go inside the Rome Pantheon?

Yes, the Rome Pantheon is open to the public and visitors can go inside the building to explore its interior.

What are the opening hours of the Rome Pantheon?

The Rome Pantheon is open from Monday to Saturday from 8:30 AM to 7:30 PM and on Sundays from 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM.

How many visitors does the Rome Pantheon receive each year?

The Rome Pantheon receives approximately 2 million visitors each year.

What notable figures are buried in the Rome Pantheon?

Some notable figures buried in the Rome Pantheon include Italian kings Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, artist Raphael, and composer Arcangelo Corelli.

What is the dress code to visit Rome Pantheon?

Wear clothing that covers your shoulders and knees and avoid wearing revealing outfits. Keep in mind that it's customary to remove hats or caps before entering religious sites in Italy.

Can I attend mass or religious services at the Pantheon?

Yes, the Pantheon still functions as an active church, and religious services, including mass, are held there.

Is the Pantheon located near other popular tourist attractions in Rome?

Yes, the Pantheon is centrally located in Rome and is within walking distance of many other famous landmarks, such as Piazza Navona, Trevi Fountain, and the Spanish Steps.